Friday, May 22, 2020

Learn About the Munich Olympic Massacre

The Munich Massacre was a terrorist attack during the 1972 Olympic Games. Eight Palestinian terrorists killed two members of Israeli Olympic team and then took nine others hostage. The situation was ended by a huge gunfight that left five of the terrorists and all of the nine hostages dead. Following the massacre, the Israeli government organized a retaliation against Black September, called Operation Wrath of God. Dates:  September 5, 1972 Also Known As:  1972 Olympics Massacre Stressful Olympics The XXth Olympic Games were held in Munich, Germany in 1972. Tensions were high at these Olympics because they were the first Olympic Games held in Germany since the Nazis hosted the Games in 1936. The Israeli athletes and their trainers were especially nervous; many had family members who had been murdered during the Holocaust or were themselves Holocaust survivors. The Attack The first few days of the Olympic Games went smoothly. On September 4, the Israeli team spent the evening out to see the play, Fiddler on the Roof, and then went back to the Olympic Village to sleep. A little after 4 a.m. on September 5, as the Israeli athletes slept, eight members of the Palestinian terrorist organization, Black September, jumped over the six-foot-high fence that encircled the Olympic Village. The terrorists headed straight for 31 Connollystrasse, the building where the Israeli contingent was staying. Around 4:30 a.m., the terrorists entered the building. They rounded up the occupants of apartment 1 and then apartment 3. Several of the Israelis fought back; two of them were killed. A couple of others were able to escape out windows. Nine were taken hostage. Standoff at the Apartment Building By 5:10 a.m., the police had been alerted and news of the attack had begun to spread around the world. The terrorists then dropped a list of their demands out the window; they wanted 234 prisoners released from Israeli prisons and two from German prisons by 9 a.m. Negotiators were able to extend the deadline to noon, then 1 p.m., then 3 p.m., then 5 p.m.; however, the terrorists refused to back down on their demands and Israel refused to release the prisoners. A confrontation became inevitable. At 5 p.m., the terrorists realized that their demands were not going to be met. They asked for two planes to fly both the terrorists and the hostages to Cairo, Egypt, hoping a new locale would help get their demands met. The German officials agreed but realized that they could not let the terrorists leave Germany. Desperate to end the standoff, the Germans organized Operation Sunshine, which was a plan to storm the apartment building. The terrorists discovered the plan by watching television. The Germans then planned to attack the terrorists on their way to the airport, but again the terrorists found out their plans. Massacre at the Airport Around 10:30 p.m., the terrorists and hostages were transported to the Fà ¼rstenfeldbruck airport by helicopter. The Germans had decided to confront the terrorists at the airport and had snipers waiting for them. Once on the ground, the terrorists realized there was a trap. Snipers started shooting at them and they shot back. Two terrorists and one policeman were killed. Then a stalemate developed. The Germans requested armored cars and waited for over an hour for them to arrive. When the armored cars arrived, the terrorists knew the end had come. One of the terrorists jumped into a helicopter and shot four of the hostages, then threw in a grenade.  Another terrorist hopped into the other helicopter and used his machine gun to kill the remaining five hostages. The snipers and armored cars killed three more terrorists in this second round of gunfire. Three terrorists survived the attack and were taken into custody. Less than two months later, the three remaining terrorists were released by the German government after two other Black September members hijacked a plane and threatened to blow it up unless the three were released.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Motivating Employees - 2552 Words

While working as a manager in an organization, his job is to make sure that the employees are doing their jobs and they are doing it in the most productive way. But employees are not machines that we could just program their task in their brain and they will do it automatically, they require motivation to actually do their job properly. This is easier said then done, to understand the ways of motivating people we first need to understand human nature, which is the fundamental nature and substance of humans (wikipedia, human nature). Various philosophers have come out with different theories trying to explain the human nature and how to motivate them. These philosophers include Douglas Mcgregor with his Theory X, Theory Y, and then there†¦show more content†¦The safety of the person is important because they need to feel secure in life, without that they would not be able to do anything with confidence, and they would always have the fear of being attacked or harassed. Thirdl y after the person feels secure, they would try to find love and the sense of belongingness and that is because everyone seeks to overcome the feeling of being lonely, so they would try to find someone to be with, and that includes the giving and taking of love or they would join or create a group of friends to be with. After the previous needs are satisfied, one would seek the need of self-esteem or esteem that from the others, because everyone would seek respect from others and also a stable level of self-respect, without respect the person would feel helpless, worthless and depressed. That would not motivate the employee to fully contribute their abilities to their job. And the highest level would be self-actualization, Maslow describes that its the persons need to be and do that which that person is born to do (Janet, Maslow). That motivates the person to continue to search for new ways to improve themselves, resulting the improvement and full contribution to what they are doing . Maslows theory clearly explains the need and the power behind the motivation a person need and have. Subsequently there is David McClellands achievement motivation. David believes thatShow MoreRelatedMotivating Employees At A Hospital Essay1357 Words   |  6 PagesMotivating Employees A hospital is comprised of various cultures, a multiple interdisciplinary staff and it is designed to deliver adequate health care to its patrons. The Kaluyu Memorial Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya is at the forefront of handling trauma cases, the critical ill, and some instances terminally ill individuals. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Notes Free Essays

Dual processionals is the ability of users to create their own personal accounts but can also look at other users profile as well. In other words, Mejia is saying that social networks can be used in the users favor as well as the user’s friend’s favor. For example, people create their own personal Backbone account to show others their lifestyle while at the same time keeping touch with their friends and family by viewing other people’s profiles and commenting on it. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now Another example is Mainstream here people can post pictures of their everyday lives. At the same time, their newsfeed would be filled with other people’s everyday lives. This explains how social media work in both ways (or â€Å"dual† ways) by letting the user be aware of other peoples life as well as other people being aware of the users life. 2. In our society, everyone raises charity or causes through social media. It is the biggest platform of advertising since everyone can find it and sees it as long as it shows on his or her newsfeed (and most of the time, it’s free! It is very effective and quick in the way that it spreads the word very fast. For example, charity can use celebrities that support their cause to post about them in their social media accounts. Most celebrities have millions of followers and subscribers, which mean if they post something, it can reach out to millions immediately. Liking something on Backbone would definitely help spread the word out faster, however donating money to an organization is more helpful than spreadi ng the word. For example, spreading he word does not necessarily mean that everyone who sees it would donate money to the organization. Hence saying, liking the charity on backbone and donating money to the charity is not the same thing. Lastly, raising awareness can be considered the same as contribution since people are contributing to the cause by telling more people about it. 3. Social inclusion and exclusion is significant because even though people can post anything they want, there are still people online that protects the users from being harmed. For example, personal information would not be released to the public unless that person chooses to. Furthermore, sometimes when someone post inappropriate stuff online, the administrator will delete it in order to protect the public from seeing the harmful post. Some consequences will include the delete of the post as well as arrest if it is illegal. For example, if someone post a video of themselves doing illegal drugs, it is most likely that the police will track them down and arrest them for the inappropriate video as well as raising awareness for the drug. How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays This past summer I went paintball a couple of times with my friends and after that I did almost nothing Just work I work at pizza hut. I also went fishing to ports Mansfield we caught about two, three fishes we were there then we went back home stopped by McDonald’s got some hamburgers went home got some sleep. I did almost nothing this summer because I mostly slept. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now If any I went to go out to go eat, watched one movie at the movies, Dawn of the rise of the planet of the apes. There is nothing I did after that Just work, work, and work. This summer I tried to go to the beach rent a condo there stay a couple of night but my truck broke down so this summer I Just worked to pay that. There really isn’t any other thing I did Just stay at home this next summer I want to plan to not stay In the valley I want to go up north anywhere is better than here In my opinion. How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays Some difference though is that France really has more 40-49 year olds, while Kenya has plenty of younger children, and Poland has more 30 year olds. 2. In this lesson, you studied countries with various types of population growth. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now Based on the information in the lesson and what you learned from the assessment, what conclusions can you draw about the characteristics of rapidly growing countries, countries with moderate growth, and shrinking countries? They are all around the same it’s Just with different environments makes deferent things happen so that’s really how all of them are different. 3. Based on the data in your pyramid, what might you expect the pyramid to look Like In five years? In 10 years? In 50 years? I think based on the current population pyramid and the ages If this Is a continuous pattern then It should be the name in five years, in 10 years, and even in 50 years, as long as the numbers are country future. What problems might each country face if its population trends continue? For France I believe if there was a war to go on they might not be able to survive it since they have many 40-49 year old and they would only be able to help for so long before they give up. 5. What are the implications of each type of pyramid structure? Poland population pyramid would be classified as a Constrictive population pyramid since it displays lower numbers or percentages of younger people. Their population growth is negative. Kenya population pyramid would be classified as a Concave population because it is indicating a high death rate. France would be classified as stationary or near-stationary population pyramids display somewhat equal numbers or percentages for almost all age groups. Their population growth is neutral or stable. 6. Think about the demographics of your town or state. What shape do you think a population pyramid of your town or state would have and why? I think Florida population pyramid would be classified as stationary or near- stationary population pyramids display somewhat equal numbers or percentages for almost all age groups. How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays Lecture notes Singapore symbol Is Lion Ancestor Is Important Death starts In hell – purge Buddhism – Release from suffering Buddhism appeals to Chinese from several reasons Buddhism tolerance from other religions and ways of thought. No history of persecution No wars No establishing a holy kingdom Tolerance Accepted Confucianism and Taoism. Although Buddhism Is the way of truth. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now , Confucianism and Taoism taught moral value. Buddhist salvation lies beyond the mortal world. Does not depend on religious purity-Can accept other religion. Buddhism establishes charities to alleviate suffering. Buddhism inclusiveness. Equality and unity between all classes (social) Eliminate the caste system in India Foreign aliens in the Northern China accepted Buddhism because it was outside of Chinese thought ( Confirm and Dad) Alien barbarian rulers found equality from Buddhist beliefs, Buddhist claims of magical ability, -Folk religion- Magical ability of Buddhist powers appeals to the superstitious. Represented the superstitious aspect of Buddhism Buddhism had sutras- extensive literature good art Chinese people like this Elaborate rituals’ Justice of Good and Evil. Karma Justice is liked by the Buddhist End: Confucianism still prevailed as the family ethic and state rationale. ‘ Confucianism as a moral code, family code, never faded. Religious sphere did not contend with Its rivals. Confucianism was the tie that bound all Chinese together. Whether through religion or Dillon. Parkland is the most practiced Buddhism True law or Doctrine 1000 years era of reflected law ( counterfeit Doctrine) Final Degeneration of the Law Final thought of austerity Goodness Final degeneration had began Only faith in the saving power of Buddha can assure salvation Salvation is rebirth into the Pure Land. Rich fertile comfortable land Lotus and fragrant flowers Filled with Gods and Human Kind. Devoid of denizens of hell Ghosts animals No Women in the pure land. Woman are thought to be impure Men are a higher form of being Teaching of compassion patience and tolerance is heard Anita God of parkland State of total nirvana Wanted to save other people to be enlightened Darkroom made 48 vows. 18th vow was promised release from suffering for all who at the moment of death desired enlightenment and who pray to him think favorably of him and pray to him . If he does not perform this salvation, may he not achieve perfect enlightenment Merit of the Buddha or the bodhisattva is transferable to all beings by faith in that Buddha. Gauguin – portrayed the female – most common bodhisattva as mercy. Human Founded parkland society in China- First patriarch Tanana 476-542 (530) Chant Matthias name (created it) Patriarch Douche( 563-645) Answered important questions about parkland. Does accumulated evil before death and you have 10 thoughts of Buddha does it cancel all evil. (a room may be dark for a thousand years but once light shines in it is as if darkness has never existed. What kind of concentration is required A lot Total and undivided concentration. 10 concentrated thoughts of Buddha is impossible without a memorable life If you are evil it is not something that is possible because you will have fear after death, Primary of activity before parkland say Buddha name (secondary Reading the Buddha scripture Worshipping Praising Parable of the white path. Someone is being pursued by a group of ruffians. He has to cross a river. The North river is pure fire. South is water Very narrow path of fire and water no more than three inches wide. IF he steps onto the path he fears of falling. However he must cross to get away. And he crosses. Parable of salvation through faith and beliefs. Cumin ( Spread Buddhism to the masses. Criticized meditation school Does not have evil or good in meditation meditation says the world is unreal no evil or good to be performed. Danna. Chinese Chain Japanese Zen Differences in methods of houses of Chain Ling Jell Purpose of meditation school: see ones nature and become Buddha. Intuitive method of spiritual training of realizing the realty of inner most recesses of ones souls. All beings have Buddha nature within us. We must discover our own Buddha nature. Meditation Meditation in the Lotus positions. Use of the Conga Use of anecdotes. Use of anecdotes counterintuitive to spontaneous intuition. Riddles and conundrums. O the students are supposed to regard these as learn for themselves using intuition. Experience of sudden enlightenment Meditation school Mind to mind transmission First transmission occurs from shamanic Sukiyaki smiles in understanding what bull First enlightenment Ultimate reality from meditation Buddhism – the ultimate reality is absolute truth. The mind of the Buddha. Present in all sentient beings. Always there always will be there . Most of us will not realize the absolute truth. Buddha is the universal blah blah blah†¦ The obstacles of achieving ones nature is ignorance and the folly O calm and tranquil and no self. Achieve this by intuition study of nature not through conscious effort Page 512. Hilt of sword. He does not have a self. Can not lay hold of himself because he doesn’t have a self.? Self confidence means reliance on scripture. No dependence on ritual performances prayers. Relying on oneself to discover there is no self. Before you 6th patriarch Kappa mind to mind transmission How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays Freeman, Biological Science, 4e, Chapter 24 24 – Evolution by Natural Selection Learning Objectives: Students should be able to †¦ †¢ Define evolution, fitness, and adaptation using the biological definitions. †¢ Describe the nature of the evidence regarding (1) whether species change through time and (2) whether they are related by common ancestry. †¢ Assess whether Darwin’s four postulates are true in any given example, explain to a friend why evolution must occur if all four are true, and explain whether evolution will occur if any of the four are not true. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now Identify common misconceptions about evolution, and give examples to illustrate why they are not true. (For example: Is evolution progressive? Do animals do things â€Å"for the good of the species†? Does evolution result in perfection? ) Lecture Outline †¢ Evolution is one of the best-supported and most important theories in the history of science. †¢ Evolution is one of the five attributes of life. †¢ Evolution has both a pattern and a process. I. The Evolution of Evolutionary Thought A. Plato and typological thinking 1. Plato saw species as unchanging, perfect â€Å"types† created by God. 2. Plato thought individual variation was an unimportant deviation from the true â€Å"type. † B. Aristotle and the great chain of being (scale of nature) 1. Aristotle, like Plato, thought species were unchanging types. 2. Aristotle thought species could be organized into a sequence or ladder of increasing complexity, with humans at the top. (Fig. 24. 1) C. Lamarck and the idea of evolution as change through time 1. Lamarck noticed that organisms changed over time. 2. Lamarck thought animals progressed over time from â€Å"lower† to â€Å"higher† forms (like Aristotle’s ladder) via inheritance of acquired characteristics. D. Darwin and Wallace and evolution by natural selection 1. Species change over time, but they do not â€Å"progress. † 2. A species does not have a single true â€Å"type. † 3. Individual variation is important; variation is what drives evolution. 4. This theory made predictions and was testable; that is, it was scientific. II. The Pattern of Evolution: Have Species Changed through Time? A. Two predictions of Darwin’s theory: 1. Species change through time.  © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Freeman, Biological Science, 4e, Chapter 24 2. Species are related by common ancestry. B. Evidence of change through time 1. The fossil record and geologic time a. A fossil is any trace of an organism that lived in the past. (Fig. 24. 2) b. The fossil record was initially organized based on the relative age of the fossils. c. The geologic time scale (1) Sedimentary rocks form layers over long times. These layers form in a chronological sequence (the geologic time scale). (2) From the number of layers and the time it takes to deposit each one, geologists realized that the Earth must be very old. d. Radiometric dating enables us to date rocks directly. (1) The Earth is 4. 6 billion years old. 2) The earliest signs of life are in rocks that are 3. 4? 3. 8 billion years old. 2. Extinction changes the species present over time. a. The fossil record shows that more than 99% of all the species that have ever lived are now extinct. (Fig. 24. 3) b. This is evidence that the species composition on Earth has changed over time. 3. Transitional features link older and younger species. a. Law of succession: Fossils foun d in a certain geographic region frequently resemble the species currently living in that region. (1) This is evidence that the extinct species are related to existing species. . Fossils with transitional features (traits intermediate between those of older and younger species) are compelling evidence that species change over time. Example: the fins-to-feet transition. (Fig. 24. 4) 4. Vestigial traits are evidence of change through time. a. Vestigial traits are traits that have reduced or no function but are clearly related to functioning organs in related species. (Fig. 24. 5) b. The existence of these traits challenges the theory of special creation that organisms were designed by a perfect creator and are static. c. Biologists interpret the existence of these traits as evidence that organisms change over time. 5. Current examples of change through time a. Biologists have documented hundreds of contemporary populations that are changing in response to their environment.  © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Freeman, Biological Science, 4e, Chapter 24 C. Evidence of descent from a common ancestor 1. Similar species are found in the same geographic area. a. Similar, but distinct, species are often found living close together in the same geographic area, implying that they are linked by a common ancestor. Example: Galapagos mockingbirds. (Fig. 4. 6a) b. These similar species are part of a phylogeny (a family tree), and their relationships can be diagrammed on a phylogenetic tree (a branching diagram that indicates genealogy). (Fig. 24. 6b) 2. Homology: the occurrence of similar features in different species because they both inherited the trait from a common ancestor. a. Different kinds of homology: (1) Genetic homology—similarities in DNA sequences (Fig. 24. 7) (2) Developmental homology—similarities in the morphology of embryos and the fate of embryonic tissues (Fig. 24. 8) (3) Structural homology—similarities in the structure of body parts (Fig. 24. 9) b. The three levels of homology interact: Genetic homologies cause developmental homologies, which cause structural homologies. c. Hypotheses about homology can be tested experimentally. (Fig. 24. 10) d. Homology is used extensively in contemporary biology. Examples: use of model organisms, comparative genomics. 3. Current examples of descent from a common ancestor a. Biologists have documented dozens of examples of populations that are undergoing speciation. D. Evolution’s â€Å"internal consistency†? the importance of independent datasets 1. When data from independent sources support a theory, that is powerful evidence that the theory is correct. Table 24. 1) a. Example: evolution of cetaceans from a terrestrial ancestor. (DNA, morphology, fossil record, and other evidence all agree. ) (Fig. 24. 11) 2. The theory of evolution by natural selection is much more consistent with the data than is the pattern predicted by special creation. III. The Process of Evolution: How Do es Natural Selection Work? A. Darwin’s four postulates, the outcome of which is evolution: 1. Individuals vary. 2. Some variations are heritable. 3. More offspring are produced than can survive. 4. Individuals with traits that confer an advantage are more likely to survive and reproduce. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Freeman, Biological Science, 4e, Chapter 24 5. Summary: Evolution by natural selection occurs whenever heritable variation leads to differential success in survival and reproduction. B. The biological definitions of fitness and adaptation 1. Fitness is the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce, relative to other individuals in that population. 2. Adaptation is a heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment, relative to other individuals lacking the trait. IV. Evolution in Action: Recent Research on Natural Selection A. Case Study 1: How did Mycobacterium tuberculosis become resistant to antibiotics? 1. A patient history a. A patient with active tuberculosis (TB) was given the antibiotic rifampin for 40 weeks and then released when lung cultures showed no bacteria. b. Two months later, the patient had a relapse and died of rifampin-resistant TB. 2. A mutation in a bacterial gene confers resistance. (Fig. 24. 12) a. DNA analysis showed that the patient’s TB bacteria had acquired one new mutation in the gene for RNA polymerase, the same enzyme that is the target of rifampin. b. These bacteria were likely present at low frequency before the rifampin treatment. . When the rifampin treatment began, bacteria without the mutation were killed off, and only the bacteria with the mutation survived. (Fig. 24. 14) d. Students should be able to explain why the patient relapsed, and whether a family member who got TB from the patient after the relapse would respond to antibiotics. 3. Testing Darwin’ s postulates a. Did variation exist in the population? Yes, research shows that populations of TB bacteria do have variation for rifampin resistance. b. Was the variation heritable? Yes, variation in rifampin resistance (the phenotype) is due directly to genotype. c. Was there variation in reproductive success? Yes, once rifampin treatment began, only a few bacteria survived to reproduce. d. Did selection occur? Yes, certain bacteria (those with the drugresistant allele) were much more likely to survive and reproduce. 4. Resistance is a widespread problem. a. Resistance (to drugs, insecticides, etc. ) has evolved repeatedly in many species and is a growing public health problem. (Fig. 24. 14)  © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Freeman, Biological Science, 4e, Chapter 24 B. Case Study 2: Why are beak size, beak shape, and body size changing in Galapagos finches? 1. The medium ground finch population of the island Daphne Major varies in beak shape and body size, and these traits are heritable. (Fig. 24. 15) 2. Selection during drought conditions a. Drought survivors had deeper beaks. (Fig. 24. 16) b. Deeper beaks allowed those individuals to eat the only remaining seeds, which were tough and difficult to crack. c. In the next generation, the average beak size was considerably larger than it had been before the drought. d. Summary: In only one generation, natural selection had led to a measurable change in the characteristics of the population. 3. Continued evolution a. In a subsequent rainy year, selection favored individuals with small, pointy beaks. b. Over 30 years of study, researchers have documented continued evolution in response to environmental events. (Fig. 24. 17) 4. Which genes are under selection? a. Recent research has identified several genes that affect beak length in development, such as Bmp4. (Fig. 24. 18) V. Common Misconceptions about Natural Selection and Adaptation A. Selection acts on individuals, but evolutionary change occurs in populations. 1. During the evolutionary process, individuals do not change, only the population changes. Examples: Galapagos finches, TB bacteria. 2. Acclimation is not adaptation. Individuals may change during their lifetime (acclimation), but these changes are not passed on to offspring. a. Students should be able to explain the difference between the biological definition of adaptation and its use in everyday English, and the difference between acclimation and adaptation. B. Evolution is not goal directed. 1. Mutations occur randomly; they do not occur because organisms â€Å"want† or â€Å"need† them. 2. Evolution is not â€Å"progressive. † a. Evolution does not always result in â€Å"better† or â€Å"more advanced† organisms. . Complex traits are often lost in evolution. 3. There is no such thing as a â€Å"higher† or â€Å"lower† organism. a. Evolution is not a â€Å"ladder†; it is more like a tree. (Fig. 24. 19) b. Evolution simply results in organisms adapted to live in different environments; no organism is â€Å"higherà ¢â‚¬  than another.  © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Freeman, Biological Science, 4e, Chapter 24 C. Organisms do not act for the good of the species. (Fig. 24. 20) 1. Individuals with alleles for self-sacrificing behavior die, while individuals with alleles for selfish behavior survive. 2. No instance of purely self-sacrificing behavior has ever been recorded in nature. D. Limitations of natural selection 1. Not all traits are adaptive; evolution does not lead to perfect organisms. Examples: vestigial organs, silent mutations. 2. Genetic constraints: a. Sometimes nonoptimal traits are propagated because they are genetically linked with an optimal trait (genetic correlation). b. One example is finch beaks. The best beak would have been a narrow deep beak, but what evolved was a wide deep beak, because beak depth and beak width are genetically linked. c. Lack of genetic variation can also limit evolution. . Fitness trade-offs: Natural selection often results in a compromise between traits with different effects. 4. Historical constraints: Natural selection can act only on traits that existed in the ancestral population. Chapter Vocabulary To emphasize the functional meanings of these terms, the list is organized by topic rather than by first occurrence in the chapter. It includes terms that may have been introduced in earlier chapters but are important to the current chapter as well. It also includes terms other than those highlighted in bold type in the chapter text. volution special creation great chain of being inheritance of acquired characters typological thinking population thinking population descent with modification fossil fossil record sedimentary rocks geologic time scale relative dating absolute dating radiometric dating extant extinct transitional features law of succession vestigial traits phylogeny phylogenetic tree homology genetic homologies developmental homologies morphology structural homologies vertebrates cetaceans internal consistency natural selection heritable traits heritable variation allele frequencies biological fitness adaptation tuberculosis antibiotic resistance natural experiment acclimation selfish allele genetic constraint genetic correlation fitness trade-off historical constraint  © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc . How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays Background Oil spills are horrible they damage the environment and may destroy ecosystems. This question has puzzled most scientists and elementary grade kids for a long time : What’s the best way to remove oil from water? Lets bump it up to using Marvel Mystery oil ,which is a Motor oil brand, so we have a nice bright red color. There are 3 main ways to separate oil from water and 3 absorbents that can be used. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now The first way to remove oil is A belt, hose or disc, moves through a layer of oil, which causes the oil to adhere to the surface and be carried off. The second way is to Coalesce which is when smaller oil drops in an oil/water mixture will separate slowly or not at all. Coalescing media is placed in an oil separator to catch and accumulate the finer oil drops then merge them into larger drops that separate quickly. The third way is where the three absorbents come in which is Gravity separation, which is a fancy way of saying the oil and water layers are prominent. Two of three of the absorbents are fairly fast at removing oil. The third, well helps decompose the oil faster. The first absorbent is human hair, most people can see why because it grasp onto oil and keeps it but that way is kind of messy. The second absorbent is Saw dust which is a little cleaner then the hair but just about as messy. The third way which dose not really absorb as much as decompose the oil is using pure nitrogen and phosphorus to form little Tar balls which aren’t as deadly to the environment as the liquid crude oil. But no there is a forth absorbent let to be endorsed by the government. It is a polymer called WENV-250 and it was developed by a scientist to remove oil more defiantly. The polymer is non toxic so it may be used to put on birds feathers then simply pulled off. How to cite Notes, Essay examples Notes Free Essays The freshmen ‘Imports’ arrived at Yale on Sunday. It says as much on the blue tee shirts that can be seen all over campus, worn by the Incoming International class of 2018. The international students have arrived a week earlier than their American peers, as a part of OSI (Orientation for International Students), a Yale program designed to make the transition into American culture as easy as possible. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now The program is certainly a necessity, as last year, non-American scholars made up 18% of Yale’s student body, according to a 2014 census by Yale’s Office of Institutional Research. Now, some of those students are helping the new ones settle Into the campus and learn about the surroundings. Advances Tendon, a rising sophomore, is an OSI councilor this year. The councilors take students on tours, talk to them about their academic choices, and even set up scavenger hunts for them all over campus. â€Å"In the evenings we do icebreakers,† says Tendon, â€Å"To help build a sense of an international community here. † He says he’s glad he can help, as he knows how many of the new students feel. â€Å"l was very nervous when I first came, as I’m sure they are too. There’s his Idea that American students have a head start, and I think OSI definitely helps international students to catch up, and settle into and adopt the culture. † Tendon is right in saying that many students are nervous when they first arrive. Yonder Sharpe, from Katmandu, says she feels a bit overwhelmed by everything. â€Å"For me, and a lot of other people I think, the American way of life is very different than we are used to. † Yonder Isn’t alone In her culture shock. For Andre Melt, an Incoming freshman, the food and weather will be hard to get used to. â€Å"The weather Is more dry here. It’s humid in Brazil, and I’m really concerned about the winter here; lye heard it’s very hard. † A student from Singapore, who wished to remain anonymous, is nervous for slightly different reasons. â€Å"I’m not familiar with the slang here? I didn’t know what ‘hell dope’ and ‘Rachel’ meant before I got to Yale. † However, the transition Isn’t all that nerve-racking. The students have also been having a lot of fun. Luck Eros, from Budapest, Is amazed by all the people she’s been meeting. â€Å"l think it’s crazy how we come from so many different places around the world, and we’ve all ended up here at Yale together. I am really excited for the year, and to meet more people. † Edwin Prince, from Sacra, feels the same way. â€Å"l have learned so much, not Just from my councilors, but from the other students, who come from all over the world. I want to do a lot of extra curricular activities, to try new things, and meet new, Interesting people. † So far, the students have been getting to know the town, and the services and facilities that Yale provides. Roy Random, from Zombie, and Laurence Bushfire’s, from London, were on their way to the Yale Health Center. â€Å"l Just opened a POP Box, and a bank account,† said Roy. We’ve also taken a tour of Yale, and it looks very interesting. I am expecting to have a lot of fun here. † According to Yuppie Guy, a takes some getting used to. â€Å"At first, I was not used to the whole social scene at Yale, because I’m from a fairly conservative area in China,† said Yuppie about her freshmen experience. â€Å"Now I have found my balance between the extremes of social life and my school work. † Guy advised the incoming freshman to, â€Å"Be proud of who you are, but be accepting of other cultures. Stick to your principles but be flexible. All of the incoming students are going to have a great year ahead. â€Å" How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays Management structure – very Important to know a) Tactical MGM. – guide operational MGM. B) Operational MGM. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now (aka middle MGM. ) gets information from non-MGM. C) I. E. In a bank I) Non-MGM. = tellers and customer service reps. II) Operation MGM. – Nilsson statement, business objectives, business government, business compliance, business. Function, business rules, business process. 2) 80/20 RULE – people who bring 80% of business needs more attention than the customers that bring 20% of your business. Leader Manager Oversee operations Guidance Communication Problem solvers Business success rate Reporting to DRY Patience Oversee operations Patience Check ups/Check lists Time constraints Business functions Business compliance More customer facing Understanding strengths/Weakness of employees Assigns task Weekly/Monthly Forecasts Business improvement Organization/Financial Hiring/Firing SOOT Strength weakness opportunities and threats How to do a SOOT analysis: Stakeholders presents – need best perspectives. Formal meeting – impartial facilitator present Capture data Strength vs. weaknesses – internal Opportunities vs. threats – external Book reading notes: The dominant view in management theory and society in general is that managers are directly responsible for an organization’s success or failure. We call this perspective the omnipotent view of management. In contrast, others have argued that much of an organization’s success or failure is due to external forces outside managers’ control. This perspective is called the symbolic view of management. Class notes: -BCC – Business continuity planning Planning for critical crisis – I. E. 9/1 1, earthquakes, etc. Case study – Gold Bank – consumer bank – have checking and savings accounts 35 branches in CA – Ranked on monthly performance – Top 4 branches – went through 1 year management training I was hired by gold bank with a 12-month training Hired as branch manager in top 4th bank Bank lost manager 6 months ago – was fired for money fraud Compose an email with an introduction of myself – formally to employees. How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays The southern colonies in the seventeenth century -Rapid population growth – 1580-1650-3. 5 -5 million Growth strains farming economy Completion drives up process Landless poor beginning wandering the roads Ruling classes sees this as a a threat Social problems Poor population becomes mobile. Influx to Bristol , Liverpool, London Crowded unsanitary conditions In England Many die Many migrate to Ireland , Holland Big point people migrate to America for many reasons. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now Religious freedom escape from c/o/e desire for land Escape -Jail marriage, debt English In the Chesapeake Original Goal -Trading posts First attempts= Mobile/ merchants ventures Different from Spanish / French Joint stock companies No personal allowably More autonomy Huge Failure Jamestown settlement Merchant organized settlement 1607-104 sent crops , goods, and gold Land in swampy areas- not good No freshwater Did not plant crops Quickly die -38/104 left after 9 months Constant struggle to survive Cannibalism, desperation, horrible existence Death tolls stay high Disease and malnutrition land incentives to get continued migration Remains a struggling colony Indian War of 1622 Increased migration leads to problems w/natives Algonquin natives not happy Land hungry English and conversion attempts Packinghouse attacks Kills 347 English, 1/3 of population English 10 years of warfare Massacres Sold pop’s into captivity James 1=1 alarmed, revokes VA. Co. Charter Jamestown now a royal colony Tobacco saves Virginia John Role Milder tobacco Tobacco?east to grow Sets of English tobacco book Tobacco , not trade saves VA Originally small farms After 1650- Wealthy create large estates Potential Problem? Indentured servants Tobacco boom sets off wave of migration Landowners need workers Solution= indentured servants 80% of migrants in 16th century Almost all poor whites Migration= 2 steps progress Indenture agents set up contracts Contracts purchased by land owners in North America 3/4=0. 75 men 15-25, no skills Leading to gender imbalance in Chess. Conditions for servants Many sold multiple times Greatly exploited Brutal conditions Time added for small infractions Beating/ long hours Men needed permission to marry Women cannot marry until end of contract Children= 2 years added Moss never escaped contract 1/2 die before end of contract only 1/4 get property Lord Baltimore and Catholics in Maryland Charles 1 Maryland Refuge of Catholics Problem Toleration Acts of 1649- religious freedom to everyone Long term significance Chesapeake Society Young single men Poor or middle class farmers 6 to 1 men to women Fatal Disease and bad water Life expectancy 43 25% infant mortality P reach adulthood Lots of death, short marriages , remarriages orphaned child. Main goal= tobacco Wealth disparity Servants/poor farmers Planters dominate all of society GoGoboinances public offices Underfed, ununderclothes1115; harsh punishment, personal restrictions Rich get richer Slaves Gap widens BaBaconRebellion Background Situation in Virginia Landowner success Lucrative middlemen GOGOBBerkeley 1642-1652, 1660 Corrupt Nepotism Wealth?power SuSusquehannaegotiated settlements Good foe wealthy Poor farmers Feel exploited Land hungry Attack Rough militia?unauthorized farmers Massacre SuSusquehannaetaliation GoGobBerkeley- wants peace Nathaniel Bacon- decides to fight for poor farmers. Bacon rebellion BaBaconrmy-lash out, attacking native settlements BeBarley’sesponse-arrests Bacon BaBaconrmy attack the VA capital and force his release BaBaconrmy also force legislative elections Political reforms Less governor power Voting Rights to landless free men Not a complete fix Bacon fights on Army of 400 burns Jamestown Bacon dies, movement ends Very important moving forward Colonial gogobo’sake up Power sharing, need to avoid corruption Stop using indentured servants Slavery Slave Trade 1 . Slavery in Chesapeake vsvs.slSlaveryn I inIndiesaribbean i.IWealth determined by large farms i’I Brazil, W. inIndiesii. Small slave pop in Chesapeake (pre-1700) 1) Slowly grows 2) Indentured-more expensive 3) Natives makes bad slaves 4) 1720 20%, 1740 5) Slavery defined in racial terms 2. Slavery Labor system i.IBaBaconebellion-English use African slave trade it. Cannot use native Americans ii. Spanish and port using African Americans lvlbChesapeake shifts after BaBaconebellion 3. Africans and the slave trade i.IDeDevastatedfrica 1) 1550-1870 11 million 2) Changed demographics 3) Financial shifts 4) Religion 5) Not new 6) Sex imbalance 7) Shifting meaning of marriage and family 4. The middle passage i.I3 steps of the slave trade it. Journey to the coast iii. Ships 1) Overcrowded 2) Disease 3) Food 4) Confinement 5) Death 5. Slavery in the west inIndiest. Harsh labor Hot climate iii. ‘v. Economics-easier to kill slaves and buy now ones. v.VNo Interests in Slave Families/ female slaves v’. Food Supply problems 6. Slavery in the Chesapeake i.IBaBaconebellion it. Tobacco Revolution iii. coCoreart of society ‘v. Racial Definition of slavery v. Better in Chesapeake than w. lnLenses) Longer lives 2) Lighter Labor 3) Climate 4) Disease 5) Smaller profits a) Slaves stay alive b) Female slaves 6) Much worse in s. Carolina a) Rice Swamps i)IDangerous and exhausting i’I Mosquitoes iii) Irrigation 7. African Communities i.ICultural Mixing it. Owners like diversity iii. Tribal identity ‘v. Community 1) Friendship 2) Intertribal marriage a) Common Languages b) English, Gullah etc,†¦ . Kinship Networks ) Pass on names traditions knowledge 2) Key of any culture 3) Distinct culture 4) Some old practices disappear 5) Hairstyles , artwork, pottery 6) Values persist 7) Muslims beliefs 8) Spiritualism 8. Resistance and accommodations i.ILimits lilieHarsh penalties ‘v. Some Flee 1) Wild areas 2) Natives 3) Freemen] v. Improved conditions v’. Rebellions vievilStStoneebellions= 1) Spanish gogob) Aid empire 3) English rivalry 4) War 5) Rebellion 6) Long Term Impact 9. Economic Regulation i.ITobacco makes the colonies profitable it. English GoGoboants control iii. Mercantile 1) Euro powers in fierce competitions ) Control of resources 3) Eliminate trade of rivals 4) Protect trade from France Holland 5) Increase trade, eliminate competition ‘v. Navigation act 1) Only American/ English ships 2) rule 3) Raw materials must go to England a) Tobacco, sugar, cotton , indigo, rice molasses b) Forced trade monopoly c) Eliminates exported to France , Holland d) Forces England Goods v. Navigation acts- not popular v’. Taxes cut profits vii. No competitions viii. Small planters hunt ‘x. Smuggling x. Parliament crack down x’. Pattern 10. Spanish south west i.I Northern Spanish colonies – struggling it. Small, not popular , hard to farm iii. Spanish recruit missionaries 1) Conversion= part of the Spanish mission in 2) Way to cheaply maintain land claims 3) Thousands baptized, but also leads to revolt i.IMissionaries forces natives to live in Civilized manner 1) Shoes, euEurolothing , speaking English , a?Catholicism it. Natives forced to building churches iii. Force to pay tribute ‘v. Converted through coercive methods v. Natives unhappy with forced adoption of euEuroulture v’. Natives repeatedly revolt vii. Fail due to lack of unity among natives viii. Pope-organized coalition of tribes ‘x. Idea= expel Spanish , destroy all pieces of Catholicism 1) Destroy churches icons, crucifixes, missions 2) Destroy Spanish settlement kill 2/3 of missionaries x. Spanish driven out of NM x’. Spanish eventually return 1) Lessen missionary work and exploitative 2) Labor xii. Link to BaBaconebellion Chapter 4- the northern colonies in seventeenth century 1. Rise in protestant enEnglish. Martin creates 95 thesis i.IJohn caCalvinnd CaCalvinist. King heHenryIII- i.ICreates the church of England c. Queen elElizabeth.IMixture of protestant and catholic d. PiPiecesff the pupuritans.I PuPurifyhis church with cocontrolling PuPuritansettle in new enEngland. PuPuritansain out come was to have religious freedom! b.BBrought all of there family , permanent settlement to create a colony c. Plymouth Colony i.I1s1stttempt to colonization it. Sail over on may flower lands in modern day Massachusetts iii. 1s1stear very difficult ‘v. Environment was better to survive in no disease v. imImmediatelyegan farming [crops and builds settlements vii. Puritans had better political stability Self governed viii. Farmers and every one had rights d. John Winthrop and the mass. Bay colony i.I Gets really big fast 1000 people comes every year. Bigger than Plymouth it. Representative political system helping to back pup there needs to survive iii. GoGobolanned out land distributions for everyone very organized and had own land to farm. Everyone votes. Power was shared in this colony more than others e. Roger wiWilliamsnd Rhode Island i.IDissident – people that disagree with certain things with the church/ meant church rule and state law were different things it. Separation at church at state to control religious toleration. So that churches couldn’t control everything. f.FAnne Hutchinson i.IDissident it. How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays Lashae Gayden Essentials in accounting Homework assignment Week 1 Chapter 1: E1-3, P1-3A The Long Run Golf Country Club details the following accounts in its financial statements. Instructions * (a)Classify each of the above accounts as an asset (A), liability (L), stockholders’ equity (SE), revenue (R), or expense (E) item. * (b)Classify each of the above accounts as a financing activity (F), investing activity (I), or operating activity (O). We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now If you believe a particular account doesn’t fit in any of these activities, explain why. Asset| Liability| Stock holder equity| Revenue| Expense| Accounts receivable| Accounts payable and accrued – liabilities| Long-term debt| Food and beverage operations revenue| Office and general expense| Property, plant, and equipment| Long-term debt| | Golf course operations revenue| Professional fees expense| Inventory| Wages and benefits expense| | | Wages and benefits expense| | | | Financing Activity| Investing Activity| Operating Activity| Accounts payable and accrued – liabilities| Property, plant, and equipment| Food and beverage operations revenue| Long-term debt| Inventory| Golf course operations revenue| Office and general expense| Professional fees expense| | | | | | | | | | | P1-3A On June 1 Eckersley Service Co. was started with an initial investment in the company of $26,200 cash. Here are the assets and liabilities of the company at June 30, and the revenues and expenses for the month of June, its first onth of operations: Cash| 4,600| Notes payable| 12,000| Accounts receivable| 4,000| Accounts payable| 500| Revenue| 7,000| Supplies expense| 1,000| Supplies| 2,400| Gas and oil expense| 600| Advertising expense| 400| Utilities expense| 300| Equipment| 29,000| Wage expense| 1,400| | | | | Revenues| $46,000| | | Total revenue| $46,000| | | Expenses| | | | Advertising| 400| | | Gas and oil expense| 600| | | Notes payable| 12,000| | | Accounts paya ble | 500| | | Salaries and wages| 1400| | | Supplies| 2,400| | | Utilities Expenses| 300| | | Dividends| 2,000| | | Total expenses| 19,600| | | Net Income| $26,400| | | Chapter 2: E2-1, P2-4A E2-1. Instructions Classify each of the following financial statement items taken from Remington Corporation’s balance sheet. * CL-Accounts payable and accrued liabilities * CA- Accounts receivable * PPE-Accumulated depreciation * PPE -Buildings * CA -Cash and short-term investments * CL-Dividends payable * IA-Goodwill * C L -Income taxes payable * CA Inventories * CA- Investments * PPE -Land * CL-Long-term debt * PPE -Materials and supplies * PPE-Office equipment and furniture CA – Prepaid expenses P2-4A Instructions: * (a)Comment on the relative profitability of the companies by computing the net income and earnings per share for each company for 2010. $532,000/100,000=53. 20 shares * (b)Comment on the relative liquidity of the companies by computing working capital and the current ratios for each company for 2010. Current Ration = 407,20066,325= 6. 14:1 of relative liqui dity for Bedene Corporation- means that for every dollar of current liabilities, Bedene Corporation has $6. 14 of current assets. Current Ration = 190,33640,348= 4. 1 of relative liquidity for Groneman Corporation- meansthat for every dollar of current liabilities, Groneman Corporation has $4. 71 of current assets * (c)Comment on the relative solvency of the companies by computing the debt to total assets ratio and the free cash flow for each company for 2010. 174,825532,00=33% debt to total ratio for Bedene Corporation means that every dollar of assets was financed by 33 cents of debt. 69,968139,728=50% debt to total ratio for Groneman Corporation means that every dollar of assets was financed by 50 cents of debt. How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays Is a unique activity that adds value, expends resources, has beginning and end dates, and ass constraints and requirements that include scope, cost, schedule performance, resources, and value. Project – has goals and objectives. Project – is a set of activities to solve a problem or take advantage of an opportunity The resulting groups of activities are called phases of a project Activities In construction, computer networking, telecommunications, software placement, and new product development are considered projects. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now Stockholders Include: o Payer – Individuals businesses as well as gobo organizations o Providers – hospitals, Integrated delivery networks and Individual clans purchasers – groups who aggregate healthcare products and services for dilution’s Fiscal Intermediaries – insurers, Homo’s, and pharmacy benefit managers Project managers task is to coordinate deployment of a product or new releases, coordinate testing of such new products and releases, and coordinate pilots with potential product users. Construction projects are often time consuming. They require several phases and may involve o Financial organizations o Government agencies Engineers Architects Insurance companies Attorneys Contractors Material Suppliers Builders An organization that performs an innovative task is different from an organization that performs routine tasks. 3 dimensions that encompass all aspects of technology o Complexity- refers to the number of products or operations that are performed at the same time and resulting degree of difficulty o Interdependence – refers to the extent to which the items or elements upon which work is performed or the work processes themselves are interrelated. Uncertainty – refers to the variability In the process of transformation of inputs to outputs or In the Inputs themselves. Technology may be viewed as being composed of three modes o Mechanical Technical Human Each of the 3 modes possesses 3 dimensions Integration Regulation Sophistication Each of the 3 dimensions can be mapped Sophistication to com plexity o Regulation to uncertainty How to cite Notes, Papers Notes Free Essays Kids deal with No I do not think this practice should continue. This is something that is not safe for kids so young, kids around this age should be in school learning new things making new friends having little study groups having sleep oversee they should not be thinking about making money if so not by working in a field that will make you sick to your stomach. No child should feel as if that’s the way a real Job will be because it’s not the way that it will feel like. We will write a custom essay sample on Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now It’s bad enough young kids are already out here doing rugs not going to school to make it better they want to work a child until she passes out or not able to be the same as they were before they started working â€Å"l got heat exhaustion?vomiting, feel like my stomach was trying to come out of my body. † She said. They would bring me water and saltine crackers to settle my stomach until I got better and then back to work. † (Kids deal with)elf I was feeling this way I would tell the person I’m working for have a good life but I may no longer work for you anymore. Your business is making me sick to my stomach and all you want me to do is work, ark, work and I get nothing from it but sickness and no sympathy from anyone. Kids shouldn’t even be worried about money they don’t have bills to pay things to do their main focus should be school and homework. â€Å"But that was Just the beginning. The adults she worked with were mean to her, she says, and when she was 14 she was sexually harassed. † (Kids deal with) you shouldn’t feel uncomfortable where you are at you shouldn’t let anyone touch you and let them get away with that. That should be another reason why I think this practice should not continue because It Is not safe for a child. How to cite Notes, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Philosophy Is A Study That Tries To Define And Explain How People In A

Philosophy is a study that tries to define and explain how people in a community should live wisely. In his "Life of Lycurgus", Plutarch wrote "...Lycurgus produced an inimitable constitution,... showing... the spectacle of an entire city acting like philosophers..." (Readings, p.185). Unlike other philosophers, Lycurgus' ideas were practical; his laws didn't just describe the proper way of living, but also put it to work. Using his constitution, Spartans became harmonious, developed feelings of honor, self-reliance, and self-control which the leader believed were the keys to living wisely. In addition such destructive force as individualism was replaced by a desire to serve the community. Lycurgus' first reform was an economic one. He started by redistributing the land. Since there was an immense gap between the poor and the wealthy people, he created equal incomes for all Spartans. Then, he devaluated gold and silver, making only iron currency legal. This action rid Sparta of sophists, charlatans, prostitutes, gold and silver smiths. It also stopped trade and all negative influences of outsiders. To take away unnecessary desire for riches and luxury, Lycurgus introduced common dinning tables which provided just enough food for men not to be hungry. He believed eating in luxurious settings and stuffing oneself with excess of food softened and weakened him. Lycurgus thought that dining at home contributed to greed and took away from living wisely. Also he believed using services of others (servants) at dinner caused feelings of inequality and concentration on material good rather than nonmaterial one which Lycurgus advertised. Luxury became extinct and for the most par t so did pride, envy and crime. The "Lycurgan" system made it so that the Spartans would only attempt to compete in courage and virtue instead of competing for material goods like more land and wealth. Next, Lycurgus regulated marriages and childbirth. Lycurgus "thought that the principles of most importance for the prosperity and honor of the state would remain most securely fixed if implanted in the citizens by habit and training, as they would the be followed from choice rather than necessity" (Readings, p.180). From birth, laws and regulations were imputed into the minds of Spartans. In adulthood, when they thought they acted upon their will, they actually did what was in the best interest of their city because they did not know any other alternatives. Lycurgus strengthened the women by making them exercise so that their offspring would grow up strong and healthy. For the children to be born with the best genes, he allowed sexual activities among married women and men other than their husbands with the husbands' consent. If offspring were born defective or ill, they were exposed of at Mountain Taygetus to make sure that Spartans form a superior race. The great ruler made girls and boys walk naked in the presence of the opposite sex, which produced modesty and taught them appreciation for healthy, strong, and beautiful bodies in addition to teaching importance of courage. Lycurgus went further to improve the state education. From the age of seven, boys were placed in groups where they lived, ate, played and learned how to fight. The youngsters were taught how to read, write and speak to the point. The behavior of each group was observed and judged. To captains of the groups, others "looked...for orders, obeyed his commands, and endured his punishments, so that even in childhood they learned to obey" (Readings, p.182). One of the things the future warriors were taught was how to steal successfully which would increase their skill in being cunning and sneaky. The young men were fed very little and if one attempted to steal something to eat, yet was unsuccessful, he was beaten up and starved even

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Cold War Paranoia in Captain America and Batman

Cold War Paranoia in Captain America and Batman Introduction The prevalent mood across the United States after the Second World War was rife with optimism and unparalleled success. The middle class â€Å"rapidly expanded, unemployment was low, and the United States (the only country with a nuclear bomb) became the most powerful country on earth† (Burr par.14).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Cold War Paranoia in Captain America and Batman specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unfortunately, this mood lasted for a short period of about four years before the Soviet Union started stockpiling nuclear bombs in 1949. Given that the United States was the only state with nuclear weapons by then, the Soviet’s decision to test its first nuclear weapons openly in 1949 caused tensions in the US. The hitherto mood of success turned somber and Americans became paranoid due to the fears of a nuclear bomb being dropped from the Soviet Union. Americans started preparing f or nuclear bomb attacks. The political environment was awash with speculations and conspiracy theories, with some politicians claiming that Soviet spies had infiltrated the American government. The film industry thus sought to highlight the changing mood across the United States with film directors coming up with movies to underscore the situation. Some of the outstanding superhero movies that underscored the Cold War paranoia include Captain America directed by Albert Pyun in 1990 and Batman, which was released in 1966. This paper explores these two superhero movies and their correlation with Cold War paranoia in terms of characters and the plotlines. Batman (1966) This movie is commonly referred to as Batman: The Movie and it is an adaptation of the Batman Television Series, with emphasis on the character, Batman, who featured extensively in DC Comics (Garcia 55). The movie’s plotline elicits fear, apprehension, and confusion, which characterized the Cold War paranoia. When Batman tries to rescue Schmidlapp from a yacht, the vessel disappears and he comes out with his leg in a shark’s mouth (Batman). This form of unexpected events underscores the uncertainty that surrounded the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Americans did not know what to expect if either of the warring sides launched a nuclear attack against the other.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Batman and Robin later realize that the call claiming that Schmidlapp had been kidnapped was a set up by the United Underworld, which sought to eliminate Batman. This aspect underscores the many conspiracy theories that surrounded the Cold War. As the movie progresses, the plot exposes the view that everyone loses in a war. Batman and Robin fail in their attempt to protect the kidnapping of the United World Organization’s Council, wh ile the United Underground loses its missiles and submarines in the war. Similarly, both the United States and the Soviet Union lost substantially during the Cold War. Innocent civilians died as collateral damage on top of property destruction coupled with the death of thousands of soldiers involved in the war. On the choice of characters, Batman represents the kind of a superhero that Americans wanted to be assured of safety from the threats of nuclear bombs from the Soviet Union. Americans knew that the government could not protect them sufficiently if a nuclear war broke out because in a nuclear war, there are no winners as everyone loses (Burr par. 16). In addition, the use of Catwoman, under the disguise of Miss Kitka – a Soviet journalist, highlights the allegations of communist sympathizers within the United States at the time. Captain America This movie is an adaptation of the Marvel’s Comics Superhero. In the movie, the need to come up with a superhero to prot ect Americans from the threat of a nuclear attack from the Soviet Union stands out. Even though the plot oscillates between Italy and the United States, fear and unpredictability come out clearly. The Italian government eliminates Tadzio’s family before kidnapping him for experimental purposes as it seeks to make a fascist superhero (Captain America). However, one of the project masterminds, Dr. Vaselli, cannot stand the thought of using an innocent boy as a guinea pig and so she escapes to the United States where she kick starts a similar project. She successfully transforms one of the soldiers, Steve Rogers, into a superhero. Even though the director of this movie does not mention the Soviet Union directly, the themes used point to the Cold War paranoia at the time. The idea of coming up with a superhero being was born out of the uncertainty surrounding the possibility of using nuclear bombs during the Cold War (Snellings par. 17).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Cold War Paranoia in Captain America and Batman specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cloning of a superhero in Italy and the replication of the same in the United States can be taken to imply the making of a nuclear bomb in the US and the subsequent replication of the same by the Soviet Union. On the use of characters, the script follows that of Batman with superhero characters taking the center stage. Conclusion Fear, apprehension, and uncertainty characterized the Cold War era. Americans lived in ‘nuclear war preparedness’ as the Soviet Union was allegedly planning to drop a nuclear bomb anywhere in the US. Moviemakers sought to make films highlighting this feeling of uncertainty. In addition, Americans wanted a form of protection, which could only come from a superhero as opposed to relying on government forces. Therefore, filmmakers used superheroes in their movies to meet the society’s expectations at the time, as shown in the movies, Batman and Captain America. Batman. Dir. Leslie Martinson. Century City, LA: Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, 1966. Film. Burr, William. Nobody Wins a Nuclear War But Success is Possible Mixed Message  of 1950s Air Force Film on a U.S.-Soviet Conflict, 2011. Web. Captain America. Dir. Albert Pyun. New York: Marvel Entertainment, LLC, 1990. Film. Garcia, Bob. Batman: Making the Original Movie. Cinefantastique 24.25 (1994): 55-58. Print.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Snellings, April. Captain America Trades World War II Action for Cold War Paranoia in  The Winter Soldier, 2014. Web.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

The California Gold Rush

The California Gold Rush The California Gold Rush was a remarkable episode in history sparked by the discovery of gold at Sutters Mill, a remote outpost in California, in January 1848. As rumors of the discovery spread, thousands of people flocked to the region hoping to strike it rich. In early December 1848, President James K. Polk confirmed that quantities of gold had been discovered. And when a cavalry officer sent to investigate the gold finds published his report in a number of newspapers that month, gold fever spread. The year 1849 became legendary. Many thousands of hopeful prospectors, known as Forty-Niners, raced to get to California. Within a few years, California transformed from a sparsely populated remote territory to a booming state. San Francisco, a small town with a population of about 800 in 1848, gained another 20,000 residents the following year and was well on its way to becoming a major city. The frenzy to get to California was accelerated by the belief that gold nuggets being found in stream beds would not be found for long. By the time of the Civil War, the gold rush was essentially over. But the discovery of gold had a lasting impact not only in California but on the development of the entire United States. Discovery of Gold The first discovery of California gold took place on January 24, 1848, when a carpenter from New Jersey, James Marshall, spotted a gold nugget in a mill race he was building at the sawmill of John Sutter. The discovery was purposely kept quiet, but word leaked out. And by the summer of 1848 adventurers hoping to find gold was already starting to flood into the area around Sutters Mill, in north-central California. Up until the Gold Rush, the population of California was about 13,000, half of whom were descendants of the original Spanish settlers. The United States had acquired California at the end of the Mexican War, and it might have remained sparsely populated for decades if the lure of gold had not become a sudden attraction. Flood of Prospectors Most of the people seeking gold in 1848 were settlers who had already been in California. But confirmation of the rumors in the East changed everything in a profound way. A group of U.S. Army officers was dispatched by the federal government to investigate the rumors in the summer of 1848. And a report from the expedition, along with gold samples, reached federal authorities in Washington that autumn. In the 19th century, presidents presented their annual report to Congress (the equivalent of the State of the Union Address) in December, in the form of a written report. President James K. Polk presented his final annual message on December 5, 1848. He specifically mentioned the discoveries of gold in California. Newspapers, which typically printed the presidents annual message, published Polks message. And the paragraphs about gold in California got a lot of attention. The same month the report by Col. R.H. Mason of the U.S. Army began to appear in papers in the East. Mason described a trip he had made through the gold region with another officer, Lieutenant William T. Sherman (who would go on to achieve great fame as a Union general in the Civil War). Mason and Sherman traveled into north-central California, met with John Sutter, and established that the rumors of gold were entirely true. Mason described how gold was being found in stream beds, and he also ascertained financial details about the finds. According to published versions of Masons report, one man had made $16,000 in five weeks and showed Mason 14 pounds of gold he had found in the previous week. Newspaper readers in the East were stunned, and thousands of people made up their minds to get to California. Travel was very difficult at the time, as argonauts, as the gold seekers were called, could either spend months crossing the country by wagon, or months sailing from East Coast ports, around the tip of South America and then onward to California. Some cut time from the trip by sailing to Central America, crossing overland, and then taking another ship to California. The gold rush helped create the golden age of clipper ships in the early 1850s. The clippers essentially raced to California, with some of them making the trip from New York City to California in less than 100 days, an astounding feat at the time. Impact of the California Gold Rush The mass migrations of thousands to California had an immediate impact. While settlers had been moving westward along the Oregon Trail for nearly a decade, California suddenly became the preferred destination. When the administration of James K. Polk first acquired California a few years earlier, it was generally believed to be a territory with potential, as its harbors could make a trade ​with Asia possible. The discovery of gold, and the great influx of settlers, greatly accelerated the development of the West Coast.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Management. Business function and processes (Tourism) Research Paper

Management. Business function and processes (Tourism) - Research Paper Example During next few years, TUI developed and changed its production from industrial segment to a modern tourism and shipping company. The general credibility of the TUI is quite excellent. Strategically today TUI is the largest and leading tourism and shipping organization of the world, operationally active mainly in Central, Northern and Western Europe while it has the networks across the Europe as well. The inventory of TUI is decorated with hotels, restaurants, retail stores, container ships, travel agencies and airlines. TUI has â‚ ¬14,917.5 million current and non-current net assets and liabilities (Interim Annual Report, 2009). On December 2008, TUI had 70,200 employees (TUI Annual Report, 2008), 285 hotels with 163,000 beds in 28 different countries including 84% four or five star hotels, 79 tour operators in 18 countries, 120 aircraft, 10 cruise liners, and 443 subsidiary companies ( At present, TUI AG has 43.3% shares in Hapag-Lloyd AG. During the fiscal y ear 2008, TUI had revenue about â‚ ¬759 million. One of the unmatchable entrepreneurial landmarks of TUI is its continuous structural progress and upgrading services offered to worldwide customers. Contrary to its rivalries, TUI is very successful in both the tourism and shipping divisions because of its advanced attractive products and services as well as the expansion of new and strong brands. However, the performance of TUI has been affected badly due to ongoing war against terrorism, natural calamities, global recession and lack of customer confidence. Prior to 9/11, TUI had more dynamic growth from 1995 to 2001. Post 9/11 affects really restricted the TUI’s expansion strategy especially in various countries of Asia. Since China is an emerging market, therefore TUI had planned a broad strategy but war in Afghanistan and its further affects in Pakistan kept TUI to hold up its venture in China ( In such political and military situations, TUI decided to launch its new segment in the form of a network of fast food outlets in major cities of UK and Greece instead of Asia. The long term success of TUI in Europe also forced its top management to expand the company’s growth into competitive markets of Eastern Europe. With the intention of mounting its potential, developing activities, and to attain a sustainable lead against its rivalries, TUI has decided to launch its tourism network in the markets of UK and Greece. In the first phase of its new project, 10 fast food units